“I like to walk through it slowly / On the streets of lime, of chestnut trees and roses …” – Chişinău
Those who are interested to visit one of the greenest cities in Europe, but it isn’t Copenhagen, situated on seven hills, it isn’t Rome, built in white stone, it isn’t Arequipa that offers chocolate tourism, and it is not Zurich – You are welcome to Chişinău, the capital of the Republic of Moldova.
Chişinău is the political, administrative, economic, scientific and cultural center of the Republic of Moldova. It is one of the largest cities in the Central and Eastern Europe.
Geographic coordinates: 47 ° 0’0 “N lat and 28 ° 55’0” E long
Surface: 120 km2
Population: 664,700 inhabitants (2011, www.statistica.md)
Administrative Division: 5 sectors (Center, Botanica, Buiucani, Ciocana, Rîşcani)
Rivers: Bîc ( with Durleşti, Bulbocica and Isnovăţ tributaries)
Time Zone: GTM +2
City’s Day: October 14
The Etymology of the toponymof Chişinău: Any bizarre, possible or truehypothesis
Chişinău is one of the few cities whose names have not suffered any changes through the centuries.
Hypothesis 1: The name of the capital comes from the Ukrainian word Chişeni, meaning “pocket”. They explain the origin of the word in the following way: Chişinău was in the old age a shopping center where the Ukrainian, Armenian, Hebrew and Moldovan merchants were gathering to negotiate and earn money, from here the association with the pocket.
Hypothesis 2: the name Chişinău derives from Cîşla Nouă, the new sheepfold.
Hypothesis 3: the word Chişinău comes from Keşene – which means in the Tatar language a chapel on tomb, mausoleum, sepulcher or Keşen – hermitage, monastery.
Hypothesis 4: name of Chişinău, with its suffix of Hungarian origin, is a Magyar wordperhaps from Kisjeno (Ieno cel Mic) whence comes the name of Chişinău in Transylvania, or from the words Keszentevo, Keszen, Kiszinel.
There are a lot of other hypotheses less tested and truerelated to the origin of the name of Chişinău.
July 17, 1436 – the first documentary mention of Chişinău as locality (village or populated settlement)
1466 – the second mention of Chişinău as local village in a property document from the reign chancery of Stephen the Great (Ştefan cel Mare)
1616 – The village is bought by the great treasurer Constantine Roşca
1641 – Chişinău village becomes monastery estate in possession of the monastery Sf. Vineri in Iaşi
theend of the XVII century– after the relocation of the trade routes, Chişinău becomes a fair, a burg
the beginning of the XVIII century– Chişinău becomes an important commercial center of the country
1739 – Chişinău expands its borders, merging the neighboring territories as Buiucani village, under the authorization of the treasurer Vasile Mazarache, Visterniceni, Munceşti, Malina. This is even more a rural than urban agglomeration.
the beginning of the XIX century – Chişinău continues to expand to the right bankof Bîc,with six churches. In this period is built the first floor house, which belonged Donici boyar.
1803 – is opened the first reign school in Chişinău with 2 teachers (“of Moldovan and Greek language).
1818 – after the annexation to the Russian Empire, Chişinău was officially proclaimed the administrative center of the Bessarabia’s region and of the Orhei’s shire (with a Metropolis, a spiritual seminary, a printing).
1830-1836 – The city is extended territorially over Bîc ( towards the current boulevard Ştefancel Mare), there appear streets in a straight line by the standards of European cities. The cathedral is built and is put the basis of the public garden around.
the second half of the XIX century – Chişinău looks like a colony center and changes its architectural aspect thanks to Alexander Bernardazzi.
1871 – The railway station is built.
1889 – on the main street of the city is built a tram line with drive horse.
1918 – in the capital is called Sfatul Ţarii and after the union with Romania it regains gradually the Romanian aspect.
1934 – is founded the first institution of academic sciencesin Bessarabia based in Chişinău
1939 – following the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, Chişinău has the aspect of a Soviet capital.
60-70 years – in Chişinău is activated the construction of some state institutions, new residential neighborhoods, the urban transport network increases (trolley and bus lines, rail and air transportation are opened).
1991 – Chişinău is the arena of strong anti-Soviet manifestations spent on the Great National Assembly square, as a result it becomes the capital of an independent and sovereign state. Thus are opened embassies and representations of some international organizations.
The city’s famous people
Ion and Doina Aldea-Teodorovici – singers who lived in the city, famous for their patriotic songs.
Gavriil Banulescu Bodoni – bishop of Bessarabia, lived in Chişinău
Alexander Bernardazzi – architect who lived and designed buildings in Chişinău
Maria Bieşu – soprano, soloist of Opera and Ballet Theatre in Chişinău, famous all over the world.
Natalia Dadiani – teacher, lived and taught in Chişinău
Bogdan Petriceicu Haşdeu – writer, linguist, encyclopedist who lived andworked in the capital
Alexei Mateevici – poet and patriot who worked in Chişinău
Lev Milstein (Lewis Milestone) – director born in Chişinău, Oscar Award winner
Constantin Negruzzi – writer who lived in Chişinău
Natalia Obrenovic – Queen of Serbia (born with Keşcu name) lived in Chişinău
Alexandru Plămadeală – painter and sculptor, was born and worked in Chişinău
Alexander Pushkin – Russian writer who was exiled in Chişinău
Alecu Russo – writer and folklorist born in Chişinău
Carol Schmidt – mayor of the city
Alexei Şciusev – achitect born in Chişinău
Grigore Vieru – poet lived and wrote in Chişinău
We propose to your attention some of the objectives that represent the historical heritage of the city Discover the architectural style and feel the history’s breath through some buildings from the capital’s center that have come and remain till nowadays to recall us the authenticity of the old days architecture of buildings.
|Orthodox clergy’s bank in Bessarabia (1911)||Organ Hall (1978)|
|Girl high school Princess N.Dadiani (1900)||National Museum of Fine arts(1991)|
|The building of the former middle school for girls of Bessarabianzemstvo (1882)||Gallery L (1991)|
|Building of the city Duma (1902)||Chişinău City Hall|
|Real School (1886)||The main block of the State University|
|Spiritual Seminary(1902)||Department of National Library|
|Suisse Hotel(1874)||B.P. Hasdeu Library|
|Great Choral Synagogue||Russian Theater A.P. Chekhov|
|Financial Administration’s Building (1903)||UTM main building (1964)|
|Military Hospital (1905)||central block of the University of Medicine (1950)|
|Boy High School No.3 (1905)||Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts|
|Boy Gymnasium No. 1 (1833)||National Museum of History and Archaeology|
|Building of the former administration of the dedicated monasteries’ estates “Atnos Holy Mountain” (1898)||Theoretic high School M. Koţiubinskii|
|Gymnasium’s chapel for girls (1895)||Sf.Teodora de la Sihla church (1991)|
|Gubernias revision chamber (1900)||Dental Polyclinic|
|Pneumonic hospital Calmuţchi V. (1887)||Direction of the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History|
|Building of the former nurses’ community ,,Red Cross of Harbovat “(1910)||building owned by the Ministry of Health (1940)|
|Building of the former gubernias administration of Bessarabia (1904)||Institute of Scientific Research and Technological Design in the food industry (1997)|
|Peasant Land Bank (1911)||Supreme Court of Justice|
|Hertza House (1906)||belongs to the National Museum of Fine Arts|
|Schmidt House (1894)||mobile phone repair agency|
|CatargiHouse (1854)||administrative building with offices|
|Bals Orphanage (1900)||administrative building with offices|
|Talmud Torah school||administration building with offices|
|Former synagogue building||KEDEM Jewish Center|
|Boarding school for railways’ children||Education, Youth and Sport DG Chişinău|
|Former No 2 urban school’s building||Prim- Prometheus High School|
|Building of the former homes for the elderly (1897)||Block 2 of the Academy of music, theater and fine arts|
|Steam Mill||administrative building with offices|
Sources: Chişinău. Encyclopedia. Museum Ed 1997